Multi-region exome sequencing reveals the intratumoral heterogeneity

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant tumor which is eventually refractory to any treatment. Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) may contribute to treatment failure. However, the extent of ITH in SCLC is still largely unknown. Here, we subject 120 tumor samples from 40 stage I-III SCLC patients to multi-regional whole-exome sequencing. The most common mutant genes are TP53 (88%) and RB1 (72%). We observe … Continue reading Multi-region exome sequencing reveals the intratumoral heterogeneity

A prostate-specific membrane antigen activated molecular rotor

Surgery is an efficient way to treat localized prostate cancer (PCa), however, it is challenging to demarcate rapidly and accurately the tumor boundary intraoperatively, as existing tumor detection methods are seldom performed in real-time. To overcome those limitations, we develop a fluorescent molecular rotor that specifically targets the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), an established marker for PCa. The probes have picomolar affinity (IC50 = 63-118 pM) for … Continue reading A prostate-specific membrane antigen activated molecular rotor

Fecal filtrate transplantation protects against necrotizing enterocolitis

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening gastrointestinal disorder afflicting preterm infants, which is currently unpreventable. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising preventive therapy, but the transfer of pathogenic microbes or toxic compounds raise concern. Removal of bacteria from donor feces by micropore filtering may reduce this risk of bacterial infection, while residual bacteriophages could maintain the NEC-preventive effects. We aimed to assess preclinical efficacy … Continue reading Fecal filtrate transplantation protects against necrotizing enterocolitis

Biopsy bacterial signature can predict patient tissue malignancy

Considerable recent research has indicated the presence of bacteria in a variety of human tumours and matched normal tissue. Rather than focusing on further identification of bacteria within tumour samples, we reversed the hypothesis to query if establishing the bacterial profile of a tissue biopsy could reveal its histology / malignancy status. The aim of the present study was therefore to differentiate between malignant and … Continue reading Biopsy bacterial signature can predict patient tissue malignancy

A prostate-specific membrane antigen activated molecular

Surgery is an efficient way to treat localized prostate cancer (PCa), however, it is challenging to demarcate rapidly and accurately the tumor boundary intraoperatively, as existing tumor detection methods are seldom performed in real-time. To overcome those limitations, we develop a fluorescent molecular rotor that specifically targets the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), an established marker for PCa. The probes have picomolar affinity (IC50 = 63-118 pM) for … Continue reading A prostate-specific membrane antigen activated molecular

Single-cell RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells

Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries. Although functional and phenotypic changes of immune cells have been reported, a global understanding of immune responses underlying acute KD is unclear. Here, using single-cell RNA sequencing, we profile peripheral blood mononuclear cells from seven patients with acute KD before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and from three … Continue reading Single-cell RNA sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells

Chimeric antigen receptor T cells self-neutralizing IL6 storm

IL6 is one of the most elevated cytokines during chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and IL6R blockade by Tocilizumab has successfully relieved the most life-threatening aspects of CRS in patients. In addition, latest studies demonstrated the essential role of IL1 in driving CART induced neurotoxicity in mouse models. Here we present a clinical investigation (ChiCTR2000032124; ChiCTR2000031868) of anti-CD19 and anti-BCMA … Continue reading Chimeric antigen receptor T cells self-neutralizing IL6 storm

EMP3 negatively modulates breast cancer cell DNA replication

Enhanced DNA damage repair capacity attenuates cell killing of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. In silico analysis showed that epithelial membrane protein 3 (EMP3) is associated with favorable survival, and negatively regulates cell cycle S-phase. Consistently, loss and gain of function studies demonstrated that EMP3 inhibits breast cancer cell S-phage entry, DNA replication, DNA damage repair, and stem-like properties. Moreover, EMP3 blocks Akt-mTOR signaling activation and induces … Continue reading EMP3 negatively modulates breast cancer cell DNA replication

Aurora kinase A inhibition reverses the Warburg effect and elicits unique metabolic vulnerabilities

Aurora kinase A (AURKA) has emerged as a drug target for glioblastoma (GBM). However, resistance to therapy remains a critical issue. By integration of transcriptome, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (CHIP-seq), Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq), proteomic and metabolite screening followed by carbon tracing and extracellular flux analyses we show that genetic and pharmacological AURKA inhibition elicits metabolic reprogramming mediated by inhibition of MYC targets and … Continue reading Aurora kinase A inhibition reverses the Warburg effect and elicits unique metabolic vulnerabilities

Melanoma cells adopt features of both mesenchymal and amoeboid migration

For metastasis to occur, cancer cells must traverse a range of tissue environments. In part, this is accomplished by cells adjusting their migration mode to one that is best suited to the environment. Melanoma cells have been shown to be particularly plastic, frequently using both mesenchymal and amoeboid (bleb-based) modes of migration. It has been demonstrated that 2D confinement will promote the transition from mesenchymal … Continue reading Melanoma cells adopt features of both mesenchymal and amoeboid migration