Because of the increased amount of cobalt and Congo red dye effluents attributable to the industrial operations, the capacity of Enteromorpha intestinalis biomass as a sustainable source to achieve significant biosorption percent for both pollutants from dual solution was assessed. A fifty batch FCCCD experiments for biosorption of cobalt ions and Congo red dye were performed. The complete removal of Congo red dye was obtained at 36th run using an initial pH value of 10, 1.0 g/L ofEnteromorpha intestinalis biomass, 100 and 200 mg/L of Congo red and cobalt for a 20-min incubation time. Meanwhile, a cobalt removal percent of 85.22 was obtained at 35th run using a neutral pH of 7.0, 3.0 g/L of algal biomass, 150 and 120 mg/L of Congo red, and cobalt for a 60-min incubation time.
Fig: Three-dimensional surface plot for biosorption of Congo red by E. intestinalisshowing the interactive effects of two variables at a time of the five tested variables. (A) initial pH level and algal biomass concentration, (B) initial pH level and Congo red concentration, (C) initial pH level and cobalt concentration, (D) initial pH level and incubation time, (E) algal biomass conc. and Congo red concentrations, (F) algal biomass and cobalt concentrations, (G) algal biomass concentration and incubation time, (H) Congo red and cobalt concentrations, (I) Congo red concentration and incubation time and (J) cobalt concentration and incubation time.
For further illustration and to interpret how the biosorption mechanism was performed, FTIR analysis was conducted to inspect the role of each active group in the biosorption process, it can be inferred that –OH, C–H, C=O, O–SO3– and C–O–C groups were mainly responsible for Co2+ adsorption of from aqueous dual solution. Also, scan electron microscope revealed the appearance of new shiny particles biosorbed on E. intestinalis surface after the biosorption process. EDS analysis proved the presence of Co2+ on the algal surface after the biosorption process.
El-Naggar, N.EA., Hamouda, R.A., Abuelmagd, M.A. et al. Bioprocess development for biosorption of cobalt ions and Congo red from aquatic mixture using Enteromorpha intestinalis biomass as sustainable biosorbent. Sci Rep 11, 14953 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94026-6