Acute pancreatitis is a disease associated with suffering and high lethality. Although the disease mechanism is unclear, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) produced by pancreatic acinar cells is a known pathogenic trigger. Here, we show macrophage membrane-coated nanoparticles with a built-in ‘lure and kill’ mechanism (denoted ‘MΦ-NP(L&K)’) for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. MΦ-NP(L&K) are made with polymeric cores wrapped with natural macrophage membrane doped with melittin and MJ-33. The membrane incorporated melittin and MJ-33 function as a PLA2 attractant and a PLA2 inhibitor, respectively. These molecules, together with membrane lipids, work synergistically to lure and kill PLA2 enzymes.
FIG: Fabrication and characterization of MΦ-NP(L&K)
These nanoparticles can neutralize PLA2 activity in the sera of mice and human patients with acute pancreatitis in a dose-dependent manner and suppress PLA2-induced inflammatory response accordingly. In mouse models of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis, MΦ-NP(L&K) confer effective protection against disease-associated inflammation, tissue damage and lethality. Overall, this biomimetic nanotherapeutic strategy offers an anti-PLA2 treatment option that might be applicable to a wide range of PLA2-mediated inflammatory disorders.
Zhang, Q., Zhou, J., Zhou, J. et al. Lure-and-kill macrophage nanoparticles alleviate the severity of experimental acute pancreatitis.Nat Commun 12, 4136 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24447-4