The study, recently published in Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, analyzes corn ethanol production in the United States from 2005 to 2019, when production more than quadrupled. Scientists assessed corn ethanol’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity (sometimes known as carbon intensity, or CI) during that period and found a 23% reduction in CI.
According to Argonne scientists, corn ethanol production increased over the period, from 1.6 to 15 billion gallons (6.1 to 57 billion liters). Supportive biofuel policies—such as the Environmental Protection Agency’s Renewable Fuel Standard and California’s Low-Carbon Fuel Standard—helped generate the increase. Both of those federal and state programs evaluate the life-cycle GHG emissions of fuel production pathways to calculate the benefits of using renewable fuels. To assess emissions, scientists use a process called life-cycle analysis, or LCA—the standard method for comparing relative GHG emission impacts among different fuel production pathways.
The corn ethanol production pathway—both in terms of corn farming and biorefineries—has evolved greatly since 2005, observed Argonne analyst Uisung Lee, first author of the study. Lee pointed out that the study relied on comprehensive statistics of corn farming from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and of corn ethanol production from industry benchmark data.
The increased total volume and the reduced CI values of corn ethanol between 2005 and 2019, corn ethanol has resulted in a total GHG reduction of more than 500 million tons between 2005 and 2019,” Wang emphasized. The United States, biofuels like corn ethanol can play a critical role in reducing our carbon footprint.
The Argonne team used Argonne’s GREET model for this study. Argonne developed GREET (the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Technologies) model, a one-of-a-kind LCA analytical tool that simulates the energy use and emissions output of various vehicle and fuel combinations. Government, industry, and other researchers worldwide use GREET for LCA modeling of corn ethanol and other biofuels.