Cancer-testicular Antigens (CTAs) belong to a group of proteins that under normal conditions are strictly expressed in a male’s reproductive tissues. However, upon malignisation, they are frequently re-expressed in neoplastic tissues of various origin. A number of studies have shown that different CTAs affect growth, migration and invasion of tumor cells and favor cancer development and metastasis. Two members of the CTA group, Semenogelin 1 and 2 (SEMG1 and SEMG2, or SEMGs) represent the major component of human seminal fluid. They regulate the motility and capacitation of sperm.
Fig: Known functions of cancer/testis antigens in neoplastic tissues.
They are often re-expressed in different malignancies including breast cancer. However, there is almost no information about the functional properties of SEMGs in cancer cells. In this review, we highlight the role of SEMGs in the reproductive system and also summarize the data on their expression and functions in malignant cells of various origins.
Shuvalov, O., Kizenko, A., Petukhov, A. et al. Emerging roles of cancer-testis antigenes, semenogelin 1 and 2, in neoplastic cells. Cell Death Discov. 7, 97 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00482-4