Goat milk is a source of nutrition in difficult areas and has lesser allerginicity than cow milk. It is leading in the area for nutraceutical formulation and drug development using goat mammary gland as a bioreactor. Post translational modifications of a protein regulate protein function, biological activity, stabilization and interactions. The protein variants of goat milk from 10 breeds were studied for the post translational modifications by combining highly sensitive 2DE and Q-Exactive LC-MS/MS. Here we observed high levels of post translational modifications in 201 peptides of 120 goat milk proteins. The phosphosites observed for CSN2, CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN3 were 11P, 13P, 17P and 6P, respectively in 105 casein phosphopeptides. Whey proteinsBLG and LALBA showed 19 and 4 phosphosites respectively. Post translational modification was observed in 45 low abundant non-casein milk proteins mainly associated with signal transduction, immune system, developmental biology and metabolism pathways. Pasp is reported for the first time in 47 sites.
Fig: Functional prediction and protein-protein interaction analysis
The rare conserved peptide sequence of (SSSEE) was observed in αS1 and αS2 casein. The functional roles of identified phosphopeptides included anti-microbial, DPP-IV inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and ACE inhibitory. This is first report from tropics, investigating post translational modifications in casein and non-casein goat milk proteins and studies their interactions.
Rout, P.K., Verma, M. Post translational modifications of milk proteins in geographically diverse goat breeds. Sci Rep 11, 5619 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85094-9