“Evaluation of bioactive secondary metabolites of endophytic fungus isolated from Medicinal Plant Sarcaasoca”

Dr. Anita Tilwari1, Sakshi Bharadwaj2,Megha Budholia

  1. Senior Scientist ,Madhya Pradesh Council of Science & Technology,Bhopal , M.P.
  2. Master’s in Microbiology , Department of Microbiology , Barkatullah University, Bhopal, M.P. 462016
  3. Master’s in Microbiology , Department of Microbiology,Career College,Bhopal,M.P.

 

Abstract :

Endophytic fungi have proven to be rich sources of novel bioactive compounds with therapeutic potentials. The endophytic fungus is having rich source of secondary metabolites which act as biological active agent in the higher plants. The fungal derivatives play vital part in human life and their compounds are the source of drug for cancer, microbial and viral diseases. Seven endophytic fungi were isolated from plant and were cultured. The cultures were further extracted using methanol and diethyl ether. Isolated compounds were tested for their Antimicrobial Cytotoxic activity against 4 human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439), Lactobacillus plantarum (MTCC 1325), Streptococcus Mutans (MTCC 497), Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890). An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. MIC was determined after antimicrobial activity of fungal crude extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of a chemical which prevents visible growth of a bacterium. The extracted compounds will also be identified genotypically and will be evaluated for their anticancer potential.

Keywords Antimicrobial Cytotoxic activity, bioactive secondary metabolites.

Introduction :

Endophytes are organisms, often fungi and bacteria, thatresides within living plant cells. The relationship that they establish with the plant varies from symbiotic to bordering on pathogenic [1]. Endophyte is made up of two words “Endo” means “inside” and “phytes” means “plants”.The term “endophytes” includes a suite of microorganisms that grow intra-and/or intercelullarly in the tissues of higher plants without causing over symptoms on the plants in which they live, and have proven to be rich sources of bioactive natural products [2,3]. Mutualism interaction between endophytes and host plants may result in fitness benefits for both partners[4]. The endophytes may provide protection and survival conditions to their host plant by producing a plethora of substances which, once isolated and characterized, may also have potential for use in industry, agriculture, and medicine [5,6].An endophyte is an endosymbiont, often a bacterium or fungus, that lives within a plant for at least part of its life cycle without causing apparent diseaseEndophytic fungi have proven to be rich sources of novel bioactive compounds with therapeutic potentials. The endophytic fungus is have rich source of secondary metabolites which act as biological active agent in the higher plants. The fungal derivatives play vital part in human life and their compounds are the source of drug for cancer, microbial and viral diseases. Endophytes are ubiquitous and have been found in all species of plants studied to date; however, most of the endophyte/plant relationships are not well understood. Some endophytes may enhance host growth, nutrient acquisition and improve the plant’s ability to tolerate abiotic stresses, such as drought, and decrease biotic stresses by enhancing plant resistance to insects, pathogens and herbivores. Co-evolution may exist between endophytes and their host in resist to environmental stresses.[7]The term “endophyte” refers to all microorganisms that colonize internal plant tissues for all or part of their lifetime.They cause unapparent and asymptomatic infection and live entirely within plant tissues. They cause no symptoms of disease. Endophytes are the chemical synthesizers inside plants and plants have been extensively investigated for their endophytic microbial complement .Endophytes are an under-investigated group of microorganisms that represent a plentiful and renewable source of bioactive and chemically new compounds with potential for exploitation in a wide variety of medical, agricultural, and industrial realms. They are a taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of organisms; mainly belonging to Ascomycota, coelomycetes, and hyphomycetes .The production of bioactive substances by endophytes is directly related to the independent evolution of these microorganisms, which may have incorporated genetic information from higher plants, allowing them to better adapt to plant host and carry out some functions such as protection from pathogens, insects, and grazing animals[8]. Endophytes are chemical synthesizer inside plants [9], in other words, they play a role as a selection system for microbes to produce bioactive substances with low toxicity toward higher organisms[8].

Fungi, bacteria and various kinds of microorganism are found as endophytes. Some of the endophytes are proved to be able to enhance plant growth by nitrogen fixation[10] increase resistant against pathogens, remove contaminants and solubilize phosphate.

Nevertheless, due to many reasons there is a dire need for novel resources for novel drugs which can be an answer to many deadly diseases. The bioactive metabolites produced by endophytic fungi originate from different biosynthetic pathways and belong to diverse structural groups such as terpenoids, steroids, quinones, phenols, coumarins etc. Endophytes therefore, represent a chemical reservoir for new compounds such as, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiviral, antitubercular, insecticidal etc. for use in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries[11].Though the production of metabolites is a natural chemical and bioenzymatic reaction that occurs during metabolism in the body of all organisms, metabolites may also be produced as by-products of the body’s reaction to exogenous/external substances or stimuli, such as medications and/or antigens. The network of metabolites, working with enzyme reactions during the entire process of metabolism, is called the metabolome [12]. The metabolome involves/implicates all the series of combinations of cascading reactions between enzymes and substrates in the steps of metabolism, and ending in the production of the primary and secondary metabolites.Secondary metabolites from natural sources have made a significant contribution to medicine for millennia. In modern medicine, drugs developed from natural products have been used to treat infectious diseases, cancer, hypertension, and inflammation[13]. Examples of secondary metabolites are Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Flavonoids, Glycosides etc .

Conclusion :

Saracaasoca has huge importance in Indian culture and it is used in large amounts to make medicines. It has many medicinal uses. Thus, several fungus were isolated from leaves and bark of the ashoka tree. These fungi were further grown over the PDA plate and PDB for the extraction of secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites were extracted using different solvents. These secondary metabolites were further used of the antimicrobial testing and phytochemical testing. And DNA of fungi was isolated for DNA sequencing. Discovering new chemical compounds from natural products is very important for formulating new drugs. Endophytic fungi is now under microscope for research as sometimes it produces bioactive compounds analogous to their hosts which can be used in medicines.

The specific utilization of these Endophytic Fungi against the MTCC series that are responsible to cause Oral Dental Issues like Leaky Gums , Bad Breath , Tooth Decay , Mouth Sores , Tooth Sensitivity , Toothaches and Dental Emergencies etc. can be used to treat them via taking them orally in form of Toothpaste or Powder Formulation .

 

Refrences :

  1. http://plantsciences.montana.edu/facultyorstaff/faculty/strobel/endophytes.html
  2. Li, G.-Z. Zhao, H.-H. Chen et al., “Antitumour and antimicrobial activities of endophytic streptomycetes from pharmaceutical plants in rainforest,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 574–580, 2008. 
  3. X. Tan and W. X. Zou, “Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites,” Natural Product Reports, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 448–459, 2001.  K.-H. Kogel, P. Franken, and R. Hückelhoven, “Endophyte or parasite—what decides?” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 358–363, 2006. 
  4. Strobel, B. Daisy, U. Castillo, and J. Harper, “Natural products from endophytic microorganisms,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 257–268, 2004.  G. Strobel and B. Daisy, “Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 491–502, 2003
  5. Tadych, M. and White, J. F. (2009). Endophytic Microbes, pages 431-442
  6. A. Strobel, “Endophytes as sources of bioactive products,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 535–544, 2003
  7. L. Owen and N. Hundley, “Endophytes—the chemical synthesizers inside plants,” Science Progress, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 79–99, 2004
  8. Chelius, M. K., & Triplett, E. W. (2000). Immunolocalization of dinitrogenase reductase produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in association with Zea mays L. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(2), 783-787.
  9. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11101-012-9260-6
  10. -D. James, in Pharmacognosy, 2017
  11. Woods1, … V.A. Ferro1, in Immunopotentiators in Modern Vaccines (Second Edition), 2017
  12. Lewandowski, I., Scurlock, J. M. O., Lindvall, E., & Christou, M. (2003). The development and current status of perennial rhizomatous grasses as energy crops in the US and Europe. Biomass & Bioenergy, 25(4), 335-361.

 

                                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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